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cenhtro research


Child Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Sierra Leone: A Mixed Methods Study  (PDF)

New Research on Child Trafficking and Child Labor in Kailahun, Kenema, and Kono: Recommendations for Policy (PDF)

Collectively, over the past decade, CenHTRO, APRIES, and PRIF team members have successfully administered over $100m in domestic and international grants focused on vulnerable populations and anti-slavery projects. Funders include the US Department of State, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Program to End Modern Slavery; UGA President’s Interdisciplinary Seed Grant; UK Global Challenges Research Fund; and the NIH. 

Below are selected publications by APRIES team members organized by date. 
Please contact if you are interested in a full-text copy of any of our publications.

  • Delta 8.7 Justice policy guide. (2021). United Nations University Center for Policy Research. Okech, D.- Working group member. 
  • Clay-Warner, J., Edgemon, T.E., Okech, D., & Anarfi, J.K. (2021). Violence predicts physical health consequences of human trafficking: Findings from a longitudinal study of labor trafficking in Ghana. Social Science and Medicine, DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.113970 
  • Okech, D., Bolton, C., & Schroeder, E. (forthcoming). Financial education in human trafficking interventions: Implications for research, programming, and policy, In Nicolini. G., Cude, B.J. (Eds). Handbook on Financial Literacy. Routledge, Milton Park Abingdon (UK).
  • Schroeder, E., Edgemon, T. E., Aletraris, L., Kagotho, Clay-Warner, J., & Okech, D. (2021). A Review of Prevalence Estimation Methods for Human Trafficking Populations. Public Health Reports, DOI: 10.1177/00333549211044010 
  • Sassa S., Okech D., Yoon J.C., Neckerud L., and Littleton T. (2021). Social exclusion, mental health, and social well-being among African immigrants in the United States, International Social Work. doi: 10.1177/0020872820963425
  • Laura Gauer Bermudez, David Okech, and Mihir Prakash (Editors). (2021). Prevalence estimation methods brief. GFEMS/Norad. Washington D.C. Available here. (PDF)
  • Okech D., Howard W.J., Mathew R.A. and Purser G.L. (2020). The effects of sociodemographic variables on the economic behaviour of poorer households in the US and Kenya: a cross-national analyses, Journal of Contemporary African Studies.
  • Balfour G., Okech D., Callands T.A. & Kombian G. (2020). A Qualitative Analysis of the Intervention Experiences of Human Trafficking Survivors and At-risk Women in Ghana, Journal of Human Trafficking. doi: 10.1080/23322705.2020.1806186
  • US Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Okech, D.Aletraris, L., & Schroeder, E. (2020). Human trafficking statistical definitions: Prevalence Reduction Innovation Forum. University of Georgia African Programming and Research Initiative to End Slavery & The US Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. Available here. (PDF)
  • Balch, A., Renton L., Smith A., Vaughn L. (2020). Practical Application of UKCDR Safeguarding Guidance During COVID-19: Companion piece to Guidance on Safeguarding in International Development Research. UK Collaborative on Development Research (UKCDR). 
  • Balch, A., Garimella S., Mansaray B., Renton L., Smith A., Vaughn L. (2020).  Guidance to help anticipate, mitigate and address potential and actual harms in research. UK Collaborative on Development Research (UKCDR). 
  • Balfour G., Callands T., Okech D., & Kombian G. (2020). Lifeline: A Qualitative Analysis of the Post Intervention Experiences of Human Trafficking Survivors and At-risk Women in Ghana, Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 17(3), 332-346. doi:
  • Balch, A., Johns, J., Vaughn, L., Currie, S., Stalford, H., & Robinson, C. (2019). Respect, dignity, that’s what we want: Lessons from the Bangladesh and Myanmar garment sectors on working conditions.  University of Liverpool.
  • Balch, A., Johns, J., Vaughn, L., Currie, S., Stalford, H., & Robinson, C. (2019). Recognising lived realities: policy-making on child labour in cocoa farming in Ghana and the Dominican Republic. University of Liverpool.
  • Boyle, K. & Clay-Warner, J. (in press). Ashamed ‘victims’ and angry ‘survivors’: assault characteristics, emotion, and labeling sexual assault. Violence and Victims.
  • Okech, D.Hansen, N. B., Burns, A. C., & Howard, W., & Anarfi, J. (2018). Social support, dysfunctional coping, and community reintegration as predictors of PTSD among human trafficking survivors. Behavioral Medicine, 44(3), 209-218. doi:
  • Tinkler, J. E., Clay-Warner, J., & Alinor, M. (2018). Communicating about affirmative consent: How the threat of punishment affects policy support and gender stereotypes. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33(21), 3344-3366.
  • Willie, T. C., & Callands, T. A. (2018). Reproductive coercion and prenatal distress among young pregnant women in Monrovia, Liberia. Health Care for Women International, 39(9), 968-974.
  • Willie, T. C., Kershaw, T. S., & Callands, T. A. (2018). Examining relationships of intimate partner violence and food insecurity with HIV-related risk factors among young pregnant Liberian women. AIDS Care, 30(9), 1156-1160.
  • Willie, T. C., Kershaw, T. S., & Callands, T. A. (2018). Examining relationships of intimate partner violence and food insecurity with HIV-related risk factors among young pregnant Liberian women. AIDS Care, 30(9), 1156-1160.
  • Lowe, T.B., Okech, D., & Washington, T. (2017). Preparing to intervene in child trafficking Interdisciplinary Ghana Study Abroad Program. In S. Chamos (Ed.) Creating successful bridges through study abroad: An international social work and cultural competency approach (p. 95-118). Nova Science Publishers: New York, NY.
  • Balch, A. (2017). Fresh Start: Integrating Survivors of Modern Slavery. Centre for the Study of International Slavery: University of Liverpool.
  • Balch, A., & Balabanova, E. (2017). A deadly cocktail? The fusion of Europe and immigration in the UK press. Critical Discourse Studies, 14(3), 236-255.
  • Balch, A., Gary, C., Roberts, K., & Willams-Woods, A. (2017, October). The Co-Op’s Bright Future* programme: An independent interim review. University of Liverpool. *Bright Future is a work placements programme for survivors of modern slavery.
  • Barner, J.R., Okech, D., & Camp, M. A. (2017). One size does not fit all: A proposed ecological model for human trafficking intervention. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work15(2), 136-149. doi: 10.1080/23761407.2017.1420514 3.
  • Culatta, E., Clay-Warner, J., Boyle, K. M., & Oshri, A. (2017). Sexual revictimization: A routine activity theory explanation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. doi: 0886260517704962.
  • Okech, D., Choi, Y.J., Elkins, J., & Burns, A. C. (2017). Seventeen years of human trafficking research in social work practice: A review of the literature. Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work.15(2), 102-121. doi: 10.1080/23761407.2017.1415177.
  • Okech, D., & Danikuu, A. (2017). Providing a Lifeline for female survivors of human trafficking in Ghana. In M. Gray (ed.). The handbook of social work and social development in Africa, (pp. 203-214). NY: Routledge.
  • Okech, D., McGarity, S. V., Hansen, N. B., Burns, A.C., & Howard, W. (2017). Financial capability and sociodemographic factors among survivors of human trafficking. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work.15(2), 122-135. doi: 10.1080/23761407.2017.1419154
  • Prust, M. L., Curry, L., Callands, T. A., Drakes, J., McLean, K., Harris, B., & Hansen, N. B. (2017). Risk factors for and consequences of substance use in post-conflict Liberia: A qualitative study. Community Mental Health Journal, 54(4), 438-449. doi:10.1007/s10597-017-0154-3.
  • Walklate, S. & Clay-Warner, J. (2017). Victimization and Revictimization. In T. Sanders (Ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sex Offences and Sex Offenders, (pp. 270 – 288). Oxford University Press.
  • Balch, A. (2016). Immigration and the state: Fear, greed and hospitality. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Balch, A. (2016). Tightening the grip: The coalition government and migrant workers. In S. Williams, & P. Scott (Eds.), Employment Relations under Coalition Government: The UK Experience, 2010-2015, (pp. 144-164). London: Routledge.
  • Balch, A., & Balabanova, E. (2016). Ethics, politics and migration: Public debates on the free movement of Romanians and Bulgarians in the UK, 2006–2013. Politics, 36(1), 19-35.
  • Clay-Warner, J., Bunch, J. M., & McMahon-Howard, J. (2016). Differential vulnerability: Disentangling the effects of state dependence and population heterogeneity on repeat victimization. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43(10), 1406-1429.
  •  Balch, A. (2015). Assessing the international regime against human trafficking. In L.S. Talani, & S. McMahon (Eds.), Handbook of the International Political Economy of Migration (pp. 98-119). Cheltenham: Elgar.
  • Balch, A. (2015). Tackling Exploitation and Forced Labour in the UK Hotel Sector. Centre for the Study of International Slavery: Heseltine Institute for Public Policy and Practice, University of Liverpool.
  • Balch, A. (2015). Understanding and evaluating UK efforts to tackle forced labour. In L. Waite, G. Craig, H. Lewis, & K. Skrivankova (eds) Vulnerability, Exploitation and Migrants (pp. 86-98). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
  • Bunch, J., Clay-Warner, J., & Lei, M. K. (2015). Demographic characteristics and victimization risk: Testing the mediating effects of routine activities. Crime & Delinquency, 61(9), 1181-1205.
  • Gibson, C., Callands, T. A., Magriples, U., Divney, A., & Kershaw, T. (2015). Intimate partner violence, power, and equity among adolescent parents: Relation to child outcomes and parenting. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(1), 188-195. doi: 10.1007/s10995-014-1509-9.
  • Newnham, E. A., McBain, R. K., Hann, K., Akinsulure-Smith, A. M., Weisz, J., Lilienthal, G. M., Hansen, N. B., & Betancourt, T. S. (2015). The Youth Readiness Intervention for war-affected youth. Journal of Adolescent Health56(6), 606-611.
  • Albritton, T., Angley, M., Grandelski, V., Hansen, N. B., & Kershaw T. S. (2014). Looking for solutions: Gender differences in relationship and parenting challenges among low-income young parents. Family Process, 53(4), 686-701.
  • Balch, A. & Rankin, G. (2014). UK hotels policy guide: How to protect your business against human trafficking. University of Liverpool.
  • Balch, A. & Rankin, G. (2014) Facilitating Corporate Social Responsibility in the Field of Human Trafficking: The Hotel Sector in the UK. European Commission, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs.
  • Barner, J. R, Okech, D., & Camp, M. (2014). Socio-economic inequality, human trafficking, and the global slave trade. Societies4(2), 148-160. doi: 10.3390/soc4020148.
  • Betancourt, T. S., McBain, R., Newnham, E. A., Akinsulure-Smith, A. M., Brennen, R. T., Weisz, J. R. & Hansen, N. B. (2014). A behavioral intervention for war-affected youth in Sierra-Leone: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(12), 1288-1297.
  • Betancourt, T. S., Newnham, E. A., Hann, K., McBain, R. K., Akinsulure-Smith, A. M., Weisz, J., Lilienthal, G. M. & Hansen, N. B. (2014). Addressing the consequences of violence and adversity: The development of a group mental health intervention for war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. In J. P. Raynaud, S. Gau & M. Hodes (Eds.). From Research to Practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, (pp. 157-167). Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Bunch, J., Clay-Warner, J., & Mcmahon-Howard, J. (2014). The effects of victimization on routine activities. Criminal Justice and Behavior41(5), 574-592.
  • Katiuzhinsky, A. & Okech, D. (2014). Human rights, cultural practices, and State policies: Implications for global social work practice and policy. International Journal of Social Welfare23(1), 80-88. doi: 10.1111/ijsw.12002.
  • Atherton, J., Hansen, N. B., & Ickovics, J. R. (2013). Building a strong institutional research training program. In R. J. Sternberg (Eds.). Writing a Successful Grant Proposals from the Top Down and Bottom Up. Sage Publications.
  • Balch, A. (2013) Assessing the impact of EU strategies post-Stockholm on UK policing of human trafficking. (2013) In M. O’Neill, K. Swinton, & A. Winter (Eds.), New Challenges for the EU Internal Security Strategy (pp. 160-187). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars.
  • Callands, T. A., Sipsma, H. L., Betancourt, T., & Hansen, N. B. (2013) Experiences and acceptance of intimate partner violence: Associations with ability to negotiate sexual safety and STI symptoms among young Liberian women. Culture, Health and Sexuality15(6), 680-694.
  • Sipsma, H., Callands, T. A., Bradley, E., Harris, B., Johnson, B., & Hansen, N. B. (2013). Healthcare utilisation and empowerment among women in Liberia. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 67(11), 953-959.
  • Smith, B., Lowe, T.B., Hunter, P., Okech, D., & Blalock, E. (2013). The Lifeline Program: A case study of work-force education combating poverty for females in Ghana. International Education43(1), 50-64.
  • Balch, A. (2012, February). Regulation and Enforcement to Tackle Forced Labour in the UK: A Systematic Response? Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
  • Okech, D., Morreau, W., & Benson, K. (2012). Human trafficking: Improving victim identification and service provision. International Social Work55(4), 488-503. doi: 10.1177/0020872811425805.
  • Adams, J. L., Hansen, N. B., Fox, A. M., Taylor, B. B., Jansen van Rensburg, M., Mohlahlane, R., Crewe, M., Sikkema, K. J. (2011) Correlates of HIV testing among abused women in South Africa. Violence Against Women17(8), 1014-1023.
  • Balch, A., & Geddes, A. (2011). Opportunity from crisis? Organisational responses to human trafficking in the UK. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 13(1), 26-41.
  • Balch, A. (2010). Managing Labour Migration in Europe: Ideas, Knowledge, and Policy Change. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Balch, A. (2009). Labour and epistemic communities: The case of ‘managed migration’in the UK. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations11(4), 613-633.
  • Clay-Warner, J., & McMahon-Howard, J. (2009). Rape reporting: classic rape and the behavior of law. Violence and Victims24(6), 723-743.
  • Sikkema, K. J., Hansen, N. B., Meade, C. S., Kochman, A., & Fox, A. M. (2009). Psychosocial predictors of sexual HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-positive adults with a sexual abuse history in childhood. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(1), 121-134.
  • Fox, A. M., Jackson, S. S., Hansen, N. B., Gasa, N., Crewe, M. & Sikkema, K. J. (2007). In their own voices: A qualitative study of women’s risk for intimate partner violence and HIV in South Africa. Violence Against Women13(6), 583-602.
  • Tarakeshwar, N., Hansen N. B., Fox A. M., Kochman A., and Sikkema K. J. (2006). Resiliency among individuals with childhood sexual abuse and HIV: Implications for readiness to address sexual trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress19(4), 449-460.
  • Clay-Warner, J., & Burt, C. (2005). Reporting Rape: Have Things Really Changed? Violence Against Women11(2), 150-176.